Development and application of devices (invasive and noninvasive) that interface with the nervous system to restore or enhance function (e.g., visual prosthesis) or alleviate symptoms caused by a disease of the nervous system (e.g., spinal implant for relief of pain). Includes imaging – the development and application of tools and techniques to visualize neural activity and related processes on different spatial and temporal scales from noninvasive to molecular and milliseconds to seconds and beyond. Also includes electrophysiology - the branch of neuroscience that explores the electrical activity of living neurons and investigates the molecular and cellular processes that govern their signaling. Neurons communicate using electrical and chemical signals. Electrophysiology techniques listen in on these signals by measuring electrical activity, allowing scientists to decode intercellular and intracellular messages.